untuk mendapatkan informasi os

cat /etc/issue
cat /etc/*-release
  cat /etc/lsb-release      # Debian based
  cat /etc/redhat-release   # Redhat based


Check The Kernel**

cat /proc/version
uname -a
uname -mrs
rpm -q kernel
dmesg | grep Linux
ls /boot | grep vmlinuz-

cek adanya printer atau . ?

lpstat -a

Cek Service yang berjalan , Cek Service denga privilage

ps aux
ps -ef
cat /etc/services

Service dengan root

ps aux | grep root
ps -ef | grep root

Check Installed Application

ls -alh /usr/bin/
ls -alh /sbin/
dpkg -l
rpm -qa
ls -alh /var/cache/apt/archivesO
ls -alh /var/cache/yum/

Cek Service setting lepas konfigurasi , apakah ada kelemahan dengan plugin yang tercantum

cat /etc/syslog.conf
cat /etc/chttp.conf
cat /etc/lighttpd.conf
cat /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
cat /etc/inetd.conf
cat /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
cat /etc/my.conf
cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
cat /opt/lampp/etc/httpd.conf
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*r.*/

Check Cronjob Schedule

crontab -l
ls -alh /var/spool/cron
ls -al /etc/ | grep cron
ls -al /etc/cron*
cat /etc/cron*
cat /etc/at.allow
cat /etc/at.deny
cat /etc/cron.allow
cat /etc/cron.deny
cat /etc/crontab
cat /etc/anacrontab
cat /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root

Find Plain text or passsword stored

grep -i user [filename]
grep -i pass [filename]
grep -C 5 "password" [filename]
find . -name "*.php" -print0 | xargs -0 grep -i -n "var $password"   # Joomla

Cek Networking

/sbin/ifconfig -a
cat /etc/network/interfaces
cat /etc/sysconfig/network

What are the network configuration settings? What can you find out about this network? DHCP server? DNS server? Gateway?

at /etc/resolv.conf
cat /etc/sysconfig/network
cat /etc/networks
iptables -L

What other users & hosts are communicating with the system?

lsof -i
lsof -i :80
grep 80 /etc/services
netstat -antup
netstat -antpx
netstat -tulpn
chkconfig --list
chkconfig --list | grep 3:on

Whats cached? IP and/or MAC addresses

arp -e
/sbin/route -nee

Is packet sniffing possible? What can be seen? Listen to live traffic

tcpdump tcp dst 80 and tcp dst 21

Who are you? Who is logged in? Who has been logged in? Who else is there? Who can do what?

cat /etc/passwd | cut -d:    # List of users
grep -v -E "^#" /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print $1}'   # List of super users
awk -F: '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd   # List of super users
cat /etc/sudoers
sudo -l

what is sensitive file can be found

cat /etc/passwd
cat /etc/group
cat /etc/shadow
ls -alh /var/mail/

it’s possbile to acces ?

ls -ahlR /root/
ls -ahlR /home/

Are there any passwords in; scripts, databases, configuration files or log files? Default paths and locations for passwords

cat /var/apache2/config.inc
cat /var/lib/mysql/mysql/user.MYD
cat /root/anaconda-ks.cfg

What has the user being doing? Is there any password in plain text? What have they been edting?

cat ~/.bash_history
cat ~/.nano_history
cat ~/.atftp_history
cat ~/.mysql_history
cat ~/.php_history

What user information can be found?

cat ~/.bashrc
cat ~/.profile
cat /var/mail/root
cat /var/spool/mail/root

Can private-key information be found?

cat ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
cat ~/.ssh/identity.pub
cat ~/.ssh/identity
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_config
cat /etc/ssh/sshd_config
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key

Which configuration files can be written in /etc/? Able to reconfigure a service?

ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*w.*/' 2>/dev/null     # Anyone
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^..w/' 2>/dev/null       # Owner
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.....w/' 2>/dev/null    # Group
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /w.$/' 2>/dev/null        # Other

find /etc/ -readable -type f 2>/dev/null               # Anyone
find /etc/ -readable -type f -maxdepth 1 2>/dev/null   # Anyone

What can be found in /var/ ?

ls -alh /var/log
ls -alh /var/mail
ls -alh /var/spool
ls -alh /var/spool/lpd
ls -alh /var/lib/pgsql
ls -alh /var/lib/mysql
cat /var/lib/dhcp3/dhclient.leases

Any settings/files (hidden) on website? Any settings file with database information?

ls -alhR /var/www/
ls -alhR /srv/www/htdocs/
ls -alhR /usr/local/www/apache22/data/
ls -alhR /opt/lampp/htdocs/
ls -alhR /var/www/html/

Is there anything log(s) files

cat /etc/httpd/logs/access_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/access.log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error.log
cat /var/log/apache2/access_log
cat /var/log/apache2/access.log
cat /var/log/apache2/error_log
cat /var/log/apache2/error.log
cat /var/log/apache/access_log
cat /var/log/apache/access.log
cat /var/log/auth.log
cat /var/log/chttp.log
cat /var/log/cups/error_log
cat /var/log/dpkg.log
cat /var/log/faillog
cat /var/log/httpd/access_log
cat /var/log/httpd/access.log
cat /var/log/httpd/error_log
cat /var/log/httpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lastlog
cat /var/log/lighttpd/access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.error.log
cat /var/log/messages
cat /var/log/secure
cat /var/log/syslog
cat /var/log/wtmp
cat /var/log/xferlog
cat /var/log/yum.log
cat /var/run/utmp
cat /var/webmin/miniserv.log
cat /var/www/logs/access_log
cat /var/www/logs/access.log
ls -alh /var/lib/dhcp3/
ls -alh /var/log/postgresql/
ls -alh /var/log/proftpd/
ls -alh /var/log/samba/

Note: auth.log, boot, btmp, daemon.log, debug, dmesg, kern.log, mail.info, mail.log, mail.warn, messages, syslog, udev, wtmp

if command are limited , you break out the “jail” shell

python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
echo os.system('/bin/bash')
/bin/sh -i

How are system mounted

df -h

are they any unmounted file-system

cat /etc/fstab

What “Advanced Linux File Permissions” are used? Sticky bits, SUID & GUID

find / -perm -1000 -type d 2>/dev/null   # Sticky bit - Only the owner of the directory or the owner of a file can delete or rename here.
find / -perm -g=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SGID (chmod 2000) - run as the group, not the user who started it.
find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SUID (chmod 4000) - run as the owner, not the user who started it.

find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SGID or SUID
for i in `locate -r "bin$"`; do find $i \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -type f 2>/dev/null; done    # Looks in 'common' places: /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/sbin and any other *bin, for SGID or SUID (Quicker search)

# find starting at root (/), SGID or SUID, not Symbolic links, only 3 folders deep, list with more detail and hide any errors (e.g. permission denied)
find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \; 2>/dev/null

Where can written to and executed from? A few ‘common’ places: /tmp, /var/tmp, /dev/shm

find / -writable -type d 2>/dev/null      # world-writeable folders
find / -perm -222 -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-writeable folders
find / -perm -o w -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-writeable folders

find / -perm -o x -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-executable folders

find / \( -perm -o w -perm -o x \) -type d 2>/dev/null   # world-writeable & executable folders

Any “problem” files? Word-writeable, “nobody” files

find / -xdev -type d \( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 \) -print   # world-writeable files
find /dir -xdev \( -nouser -o -nogroup \) -print   # Noowner files

What development tools/languages are installed/supported?

find / -name perl*
find / -name python*
find / -name gcc*
find / -name cc

How can files be uploaded?

find / -name wget
find / -name nc*
find / -name netcat*
find / -name tftp*
find / -name ftp


Bash Script Untuk mendapatkan informasi basic**

echo Distribution and kernel version
cat /etc/issue
uname -a

echo Mounted filesystems
mount -l

echo Network configuration
ifconfig -a
cat /etc/hosts

echo Development tools availability
which gcc
which g++
which python

echo Installed packages (Ubuntu)
dpkg -l

echo Services
netstat -tulnpe

echo Processes
ps -aux

echo Scheduled jobs
find /etc/cron* -ls 2>/dev/null
find /var/spool/cron* -ls 2>/dev/null

echo Readable files in /etc 
find /etc -user `id -u` -perm -u=r \
 -o -group `id -g` -perm -g=r \
 -o -perm -o=r \
 -ls 2>/dev/null 

echo SUID and GUID writable files
find / -o -group `id -g` -perm -g=w -perm -u=s \
 -o -perm -o=w -perm -u=s \
 -o -perm -o=w -perm -g=s \
 -ls 2>/dev/null 

echo SUID and GUID files
find / -type f -perm -u=s -o -type f -perm -g=s \
 -ls 2>/dev/null

echo Writable files outside HOME
mount -l find / -path “$HOME” -prune -o -path “/proc” -prune -o \( ! -type l \) \( -user `id -u` -perm -u=w  -o -group `id -g` -perm -g=w  -o -perm -o=w \) -ls 2>/dev/null


Finding exploit code










Finding more information regarding the exploit





(Quick) “Common” exploits. Warning. Pre-compiled binaries files. Use at your own risk




Is any of the above information easy to find?

Try doing it! Setup a cron job which automates script(s) and/or 3rd party products

Is the system fully patched?

Kernel, operating system, all applications, their plugins and web services


<span class="line">apt-get update <span class="o">&&</span> apt-get upgrade
</span><span class="line">yum update


Are services running with the minimum level of privileges required?

For example, do you need to run MySQL as root?

Scripts Can any of this be automated?!











Source : http://blog.g0tmi1k.com/2011/08/basic-linux-privilege-escalation/